Fields of Specialization
- International Trade
- Economic Geography
- Responsible Sourcing? Theory and Evidence from Costa Rica (with Alonso Alfaro-Urena, Ben Faber, Isabela Manelici and Jose Pablo Vasquez).
: Responsible Sourcing (RS) requirements by multinational enterprises (MNEs) impose minimum standards on worker compensation, benefits, working conditions and other production practices at their suppliers worldwide. We develop a quantitative general equilibrium model to study the incidence of RS on firms and workers in sourcing origin countries. We show that the welfare implications of RS are a priori ambiguous, and sensitive to alternative hypotheses on the motivation behind RS by MNEs and the market environment in which these policies are implemented. We derive testable comparative statics that help discriminate between the alternative hypotheses. We then build a new database covering the near-universe of RS rollouts by more than 400 MNE affiliates in Costa Rica (CR) since 2009, and combine it with firm-to-firm transaction records and matched employer-employee administrative microdata for all CR firms. We use these data to provide new evidence on the effects of RS rollouts, discriminate between model assumptions, and calibrate the model for counterfactual analysis. We find that RS is not just "hot air", documenting significant negative effects on the sales and employment of exposed suppliers, and positive effects on the earnings of their workers. Overall, we find that RS policies by MNEs in CR have increased domestic welfare, and that the gains are concentrated among initially low-wage workers, reducing inequality.
- Place-Based Redistribution (with Pat Kline and Danny Yagan).
Revise and Resubmit at the American Economic Review (Slides)
Governments around the world redistribute to distressed areas by conditioning taxes and transfers on location. We show that when poor households are spatially concentrated, transfers from one location to another can yield equity gains that outweigh their efficiency costs, even when income- based transfers are set optimally. Expressions for the optimal transfer size depend on the mobility of households, the earnings responses of movers, and sorting patterns. Surveys find support for targeting tax credits to poor Americans who live in distressed places. A calibration exercise finds optimal transfers of the same order of magnitude as prominent American zone policies.
- Income Growth and the Distributional Effects of Urban Spatial Sorting (with Victor Couture, Jessie Handbury and Erik Hurst).
Revise and Resubmit at the Review of Economic Studies
We explore the impact of rising incomes at the top of the distribution on changes in spatial
sorting patterns within large US cities. We develop and quantify a spatial model of a city with
heterogeneous agents, heterogeneous neighborhoods of endogenous quality, and non-homothetic
preferences for locations with different amenities. As the rich get richer, their increased demand
for luxury amenities available downtown drives housing prices up in downtown areas. The poor
are made worse off, either being displaced or paying higher rents for amenities that they do not
value as much. Endogenous provision of private amenities amplifies the mechanism, while public
provision of other amenities in part curbs it. We quantify the corresponding impact on wellbeing
inequality. Through the lens of the quantified model, the change in income distribution
between 1990 and 2014 lead to neighborhood change and spatial resorting within urban areas
that increased the welfare of richer households relative to that of poorer households by an
additional two percentage points on top of their differential income growth.
Work in Progress
- Sorting to Expensive Cities (with Frederic Robert-Nicoud).
: We develop a spatial general equilibrium model featuring heterogeneous households holding non-homothetic preferences and cities endowed with heterogeneous consumption and production amenities. In equilibrium, desirable and productive locations command high housing prices; they are disproportionately inhabited by high-income earners; the cost of living of high-income earn- ers relative to the cost of living of low-income earners is lower in expensive cities than in more affordable ones. These equilibrium properties are all related: we show that high-ability/high- income households sort disproportionately to expensive and/or productive places if housing is the income inelastic good under general non-homothetic preferences.
- Trends in U.S. Spatial Inequality: Concentrating Affluence and a Democratization of Poverty (with Pat Kline, Damian Vergara and Danny Yagan).
AEA Papers and Proceedings, May 2021
We study trends in income inequality across U.S. states and counties 1960-2019 using a mix of administrative and survey data sources. Both states and counties have diverged in terms of per-capita pre-tax incomes since the late 1990s, with transfers serving to dampen this divergence. County incomes have been diverging since the late 1970s. These trends in mean income mask opposing patterns among top and bottom income quantiles. Top incomes have diverged markedly across states since the late 1970s. In contrast, bottom income quantiles and poverty rates have converged across areas in recent decades.
- Government Policies in a Granular Global Economy (with Oleg Itskhoki and Maximilian Vogler). Journal of Monetary Economics (forthcoming)
We use the granular model of international trade developed in Gaubert and Itskhoki (2020) to study the rationale and implications of three types of government interventions typically targeted at large individual firms --- antitrust, trade and industrial policies. We~find that in antitrust regulation, governments face an incentive to be overly lenient in accepting mergers of large domestic firms, which acts akin to beggar-thy-neighbor trade policy in sectors with strong comparative advantage. In trade policy, targeting large individual foreign exporters rather than entire sectors is desirable from the point of view of a national government. Doing so minimizes the pass-through of import tariffs into domestic consumer prices, placing a greater portion of the burden on foreign producers. Finally, we show that subsidizing `national champions' is generally suboptimal in closed economies as it leads to an excessive build-up of market power, but it may become unilaterally welfare improving in open economies. We contrast unilaterally optimal policies with the coordinated global optimal policy and emphasize the need for international policy cooperation in these domains.
- Granular Comparative Advantage (with Oleg Itskhoki).
Jounal of Political Economy, 2021
Large firms play a pivotal role in international trade, shaping the export patterns of countries. We propose and quantify a granular multi-sector model of trade, which combines fundamental comparative advantage across sectors with granular comparative advantage embodied in outstanding individual firms. We develop an SMM-based estimation procedure, which takes full account of the general equilibrium of the model, to jointly estimate these fundamental and granular forces using French micro-data with information on firm domestic and export sales across manufacturing industries. We find that granularity accounts for about 20% of the variation in realized export intensity across sectors, and is more pronounced in the most export-intensive sectors. We then extend the model to a dynamic environment featuring both granular and fundamental shocks that jointly shape the time-series evolution of comparative advantage. We find a central role of granular forces in shaping comparative advantage reversals observed in the data.
- Optimal Spatial Policies, Geography and Sorting (with Pablo Fajgelbaum).
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2020
We study optimal spatial policies in a quantitative trade and geography framework with spillovers and spatial sorting of heterogeneous workers. We characterize the spatial transfers that must hold in efficient allocations, as well as labor subsidies that can implement them. There exists scope for welfare-enhancing spatial policies even when spillovers are common across locations. Using data on U.S. cities and existing estimates of the spillover elasticities, we find that the U.S. economy would benefit from a reallocation of workers to currently low-wage cities. The optimal allocation features a greater share of high skill workers in smaller cities relative to the observed allocation. Inefficient sorting may lead to substantial welfare costs.
Tourism and Economic Development: Evidence from Mexico's Coastline (with Ben Faber).
American Economic Review, 2019
Tourism is a fast-growing services sector in developing countries. This paper combines a rich collection of Mexican microdata with a quantitative spatial equilibrium model and a new empirical strategy to study the long-term economic consequences of tourism both locally and in the aggregate. We find that tourism causes large and significant local economic gains relative to less touristic regions that are in part driven by significant positive spillovers on manufacturing. In the aggregate, however, these local spillovers are largely offset by reductions in agglomeration economies among less touristic regions, so that the national gains from tourism are mainly driven by a classical market integration effect.
Sorting and Agglomeration.
American Economic Review, 2018 (Lead article)
The distribution of firms in space is far from uniform. Some locations
host the most productive large firms, while others barely attract any.
In this paper, I study the sorting of heterogeneous firms across
locations and analyze policies designed to attract firms to particular
regions (place-based policies). I first propose a theory of the
distribution of heterogeneous firms in a variety of sectors across
cities. Aggregate TFP and welfare depend on the extent of agglomeration
externalities produced in cities and on how heterogeneous firms sort
across them. The distribution of city sizes and the sorting patterns of
firms are uniquely determined in equilibrium. This allows me to
structurally estimate the model, using French firm-level data. I find
that nearly half of the observed productivity advantage of large
cities is due to firm sorting. I use the estimated model to quantify
the general equilibrium effects of place-based policies. I find that
policies that decrease local congestion lead to a new spatial
equilibrium with higher aggregate TFP and welfare. In contrast,
policies that subsidize under-developed areas have negative aggregate